Prevotella Intermedia is a gram negative obligate anaerobic pathogen involved in periodontal infections, gingivitis, periodontitis and often in Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. It is commonly isolated from Dentoalveolar abscessus where obligate anaerobes predominate. It is thought that Prevotella Intermedia is more prevalent in patients with Noma also known as Cancrum oris.
Prevotella Intermedia uses steroids as growth factor. For that reason Prevotella Intermedia number is higher in pregnant women. Prevotella Intermedia ATCC25611 is the type strain.
Determining the genome sequence of Prevotella Intermedia is crucial as these organisms are known to cause Periodontitis and acute necrotic ulcerative gingivitis. Periodontal diseases pose greater risk than what was previously thought as recent research has linked them to coronary heart disease.
Prevotella Intermedia secrets salivary Ig A proteases which degrades salivary Ig A1 and Ig A2 – the first line of defence of the mouth against pathogen invasion – thereby making them successful in initiating usurpation of the teeth and oral mucosa.
These organisms become more popular when recent studies emerged linking Periodontitis to various diseases. Ogrendik et. al. Investigated the relationship between Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). They conducted such investigation by determining the pathogen specific Ig G levels formed against Prevotella Intermedia 25611 oral bacteria in blood samples of RA patients with use of ELISA method – Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Ogrendik’s group found that Ig G and Ig A antibody levels in synovial fluid sample of RA patients were significantly higher against Prevotella Intermedia. They concluded that this phenomenon is indicative of an active antibody response in synovial tissue and of a potential correlation between periodontal and inflammatory joint diseases. Thus, the group suggests reconsideration of the involvement of Periodontitis in RA pathogenesis. In line with this, the group of Brian Dorn at the University of Florida established that specific anaerobic species like Prevotella Intermedia strain 17 invades human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and coronary artery smooth cells (CASMC). They accomplished this through the use of antibiotic assay and electron microscopy. Such discovery proves the correlation between coronary heart disease and periodontal disease. This invasion was also hypothesized to involve active polymerization of cytoskeleton in a metabolically active cell since administration of Cythochalasin D and active polymerization inhibitor, inhibits most of the invasive bacteria.
Dorn’s group concluded by saying that bacterial invasion of HCAEC and CASMC “insults” the arterial wall, thereby raising the possibility that infection of the coronary wall by pathogens like Prevotella Intermedia can be a crucial factor contributing to coronary heart disease.
Mealay and Rose proposed that chronic gram negative periodontal infections may cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin retardation. Thus, Mealay and Rose concluded that it is integral for dental and medical health providers to discern the interaction between these two diseases to provide better care for their patients.